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NEUROINFLAMMATION

Neuroinflammation (inflammation in the CNS), a prominent feature shared by various neurodegenerative diseases, has been increasingly implicated in these diseases. An acute insult to the CNS triggers rapid microglial activation, the principal component of neuroinflammation. Microglia detects biochemical changes that pose a threat to homeostasis.

 

When faced with neurodegenerative disease, increased age, toxin exposure and infection, the microglia stimulates signals that promote neuroinflammation. Other than disease or infection, individuals are prone to traumatic brain injury. It is only natural as part of reparative mechanisms for the immune system to trigger an inflammatory reaction. A circulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines causes further damage and often results in DNA degeneration and cell death. Spinal cord injuries differ slightly because of vertebral compression, often causing ion imbalance and free radicals damage. 

The brain’s immune system response to disease, injury, reaction to toxins and infection causes neuroinflammation. Activation of the immune system against cellular variations arises, which has behavioural and physiological effects.

Neuroinflammation is now accepted as a double-edged sword. On the one hand, detrimental roles of neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases, on the other hand, beneficial for recovery in certain circumstances.

Inflammation contributes to neuronal loss in neurodegenerative diseases, but whether or how inflammation decisively affects the chronic progression of these diseases is largely unknown.

Postmortem analysis of the brains of PD patients reveals alert microglia and inflammatory mediators in the substantia nigra (SN), suggesting the presence of inflammation in the disease.

Long-standing pathologic observations reveal prominent reactive microgliosis in the affected brain regions of patients and animal models of various neurodegenerative diseases.

Epidemiologic studies indicate a possible beneficial effect of long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in both AD and PD.

Experimental evidence shows that the suppression of inflammatory processes mitigates neuronal impairment in both in vitro and in vivo models of several neurodegenerative diseases.

Mechanisms of Neurodegenerative Disease

  • Oxidative Stress

  • Genetics

  • Excitotoxicity

  • Mitochondrial dysfunction

  • Neuroinflammation

  • Neurological symptoms

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