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Definition of Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's disease is a slow-advancing extrapyramidal motor disorder that occurs due to brain cell death occurring inside an area known as the substantia nigra. In Latin, "substantia nigra" translates to "black substance" and is a section of the brain that houses thousands of neurons. These neurons release dopamine that assists that section in working with the front lobe and basal ganglia. Neuron failure in the substantia nigra causes collections of neurons to no longer function leading to shakes and stumbles in people suffering from this condition.

Primarily, Parkinson's disease has a long-term effect on movement, affecting a person's actions due to its effects on the nervous system. Medical experts are uncertain about what gives rise to Parkinson's disease, but genetics or exposure to environmental toxins is likely to be the cause. Signs of Parkinson's disease are not quite obvious at first and are most likely to advance slowly. The first sign being tremors or sudden shakes of the hands, a change in gait, problems with balance and set facial expressions that don’t seem to vary. Aside from this, mood swings can happen often and spark distress among family members and friends.

Parkinson's disease symptoms include:

The cells that are secreting dopamine die, which has a lifelong effect on signals that facilitate coordination and mobility. Parkinson's disease arises from the formation of protein clumps, medically known as Lewy bodies, inside the brain. Lewy bodies reduce the number of nerve cells and prompt changes in thinking, movement, behaviour and reasoning.

Age is a risk factor considering that a person who turns 60 is likely to develop the condition, particularly if he or she is genetically predisposed to Parkinson's disease. People in their 20s, sometimes even younger, can also develop the condition.

Treatment for Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease is incurable, but medications and surgery are available to ease symptoms of the condition. Dopaminergic medication is prescribed for a person with insufficient dopamine within the brain because of the low number of neurons in the substantia nigra.

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