Neuroinflammation is a process that is associated with the onset of several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
It is an important contributor to the pathogenesis and progression of these diseases.
Neuroinflammation is a neuroprotective mechanism, but sustained neuroinflammation can induce neurotoxicity and is related to neurodegeneration.
The role of neuroinflammation in the development of neurodegenerative diseases is complex and multifactorial. The activation of microglia and astrocytes, which are the primary immune cells in the central nervous system, is a hallmark of neuroinflammation.
These cells release pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and reactive oxygen species, which can cause damage to neurons and lead to neurodegeneration.
Several damage signals can induce neuroinflammation, such as trauma, infection, oxidative agents, redox iron, oligomers of tau, and amyloid-beta..
There is evidence that neuroinflammation could drive the pathogenic process in Alzheimer's disease.
In this context, it should be noted that the brain can no longer be seen as an organ with immune privileges, and advances in immunology must be integrated into the known pathological pathways of various neurodegenerative diseases .
Conventional Treatment Options
The conventional treatment options for neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and immunosuppressants.
However, these treatments have limited efficacy and can cause adverse effects .
Therefore, there is a need for alternative therapies that can effectively treat neuroinflammation without causing adverse effects.
Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) is a non-invasive and safe therapy that uses low-level light therapy to stimulate cellular function and promote tissue repair.
PBMT has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects and can reduce neuroinflammation in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases.
Several human clinical trials have investigated the efficacy of PBMT in treating neuroinflammation. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigated the effects of PBMT on cognitive function and neuroinflammation in patients with Alzheimer's disease..
The study found that PBMT improved cognitive function and reduced neuroinflammation in the patients .
Another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigated the effects of PBMT on neuroinflammation in patients with Parkinson's disease .
The study found that PBMT reduced neuroinflammation in the patients .
Neuroinflammation is a process that is associated with the onset and progression of several neurodegenerative diseases. Conventional treatment options for neuroinflammation have limited efficacy and can cause adverse effects.
PBMT is a non-invasive and safe therapy that has anti-inflammatory effects and can reduce neuroinflammation in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. Human clinical trials have shown that PBMT can improve cognitive function and reduce neuroinflammation in patients with Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.
Therefore, PBMT holds promise as a potential therapy for neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases.